This question is pretty broad, but perhaps these studies address your question.
In 2006, Daniel Oppenheimer won an Ig Nobel prize for his paper Consequences of Erudite Vernacular Utilized Irrespective of Necessity: Problems with Using Long Words Needlessly, which demonstrated that using overly-complex words when a simpler word would suffice resulted in lower intelligence ratings of the author. Additionally, this may lead readers to rate the content as less true (Reber & Schwarz, 1999). So to answer one of your questions, yes, the language one chooses to use can change a reader's perception of it.
More to the point, your question is related to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis that language determines thought (or the weaker hypothesis, that language influences thought). The strong version of this hypothesis (language determines thought) has been pretty thoroughly debunked. However, there is some credence to the idea that language influences thought. Many studies have examined this hypothesis, but one example is that of Frank et al. (2008). In this article, Frank tests an Amazonian tribe (the Pirahã) who have no number words-- purportedly, not even a word for 'one' or 'two'. Frank tested them on a variety of counting tasks and found that overall, their performance suffered in comparison to nearby tribes who did have number words. His claim is that number words serve as a cognitive tool to perform basic counting and arithmetic, but the lack of those words does not affect their ability to perceive quantity.
So overall, there is very little evidence to support the strong hypothesis that not having a word for a particular set of semantic features affects our ability to conceive of those concepts. However, not having those words may have subsequent affects on other areas of our cognition, such as (in the case of the Pirahã) our ability to count.
Oppenheimer, D. M. (2006). Consequences of erudite vernacular utilized
irrespective of necessity: Problems with using long words needlessly.
Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20(2), 139-156. PDF
Reber, R., & Schwarz, N. (1999). Effects of perceptual ﬂuency on
judgments of truth. Consciousness and Cognition, 8, 338–342. PDF
Frank, M. C., Everett, D. L., Fedorenko, E., & Gibson, E. (2008).
Number as a cognitive technology: Evidence from Pirahã language and
cognition. Cognition, 108(3), 819-824. PDF