In "Behavioral time scale synaptic plasticity underlies CA1 place fields" by Bittner et al. an alternative to Hebbian plasticity is proposed called Behavioral Time-scale Synaptic Plasticity (BTSP). Basically, instead of depending on Hebbian plasticity, a calcium-ion plateau can be used to create associations. From the paper:
BTSP can rapidly store the entire sequence of events that occurred for several seconds before and after plateau-potential initiation within the synaptic weights of area CA1.
However, despite reading the paper, I'm still confused about the mechanism they think performs this. Does the "plateau" cause all spiking neurons to strengthen their connections or does the "plateau" use some other mechanism to influence neurons? Is excitation or potentiation even the correct way to understand this?