I am sharing my research here should anybody find it useful.
Although PHQ-9 wasn’t developed for an Indian audience, it has been used by multiple
studies in India [1, 2, 3]. It has also been validated for an adolescent population, and a
score of was found to have high sensitivity (87.1%) and specificity (79.7%) . A
modified version of PHQ-9, the PHQ-12, was developed and validated on a South Indian
population of 100 participants. PHQ-12 essentially tests the same symptoms as PHQ-9
but differs in number of questions, the specific wordings of the questions, and the
marking scheme. PHQ-12 lets the patient mark every question in a ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. A
‘Yes’ is given a score of 1 and a ‘No’ a score of 0. A total score of >4 according to this
marking scheme has shown the highest sensitivity (92.0%) and specificity (90.7%) when
compared against PHQ-9 .
Other popular scales for diagnosis of depression - Hamilton Depression Rating Scale,
Beck Depression Inventory, and Montogomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale - have
been adapted for an Indian population [6, 7, 8]. Brief Patient Health Questionnaire has
also been translated into 11 Indian languages and validated for an Indian population .
A novel scale, Amritsar Depressive Inventory (ADI), has been developed based on
symptoms which are more prevalent in Indian populations .
- Mehrotra, Seema, et al. "Profile of seekers of an internet-based self-help program
for depression in India: observations and implications." International Journal Of
Community Medicine And Public Health (2017).
- Sidana, Surbhi, et al. "Prevalence of depression in students of a medical college in
New Delhi: a cross-sectional study." The Australasian medical journal 5.5
- Thour, Amit, et al. "Depression among patients with diabetes mellitus in North
India evaluated using patient health questionnaire-9." Indian journal of
endocrinology and metabolism 19.2 (2015): 252.
- Ganguly, Samrat, et al. "Patient health questionnaire-9 as an effective tool for
screening of depression among Indian adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Health
52.5 (2013): 546-551.
- Poongothai, S., et al. "Reliability and validity of a modified PHQ-9 item
inventory (PHQ-12) as a screening instrument for assessing depression in Asian
Indians (CURES-65)." (2009).
- Ajmany S, Nandi DN. Adaptation of A. T. Beck et al.'s "an inventory for
measuring depression" Indian J Psychiatry 1973;15:386-90.
- Ganguli M, Dube S, Johnston JM, Pandav R, Chandra V, Dodge HH. Depressive
symptoms, cognitive impairment and functional impairment in a rural elderly
population in India: A Hindi version of the geriatric depression scale (GDS-H).
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1999;14:807-20.
- Raguram R, Weiss MG, Channabasavanna SM, Devms GM. Stigma, depression,
and somatization in south India. Am J Psychiatry 1996;1531043-9.
- Kochhar, P. H., S. S. Rajadhyaksha, and V. R. Suvarna. "Translation and
validation of brief patient health questionnaire against DSM IV as a tool to
diagnose major depressive disorder in Indian patients." Journal of postgraduate
medicine 53.2 (2007): 102.
- Grover, Sandeep, Alakananda Dutt, and Ajit Avasthi. "An overview of Indian
research in depression." Indian journal of psychiatry 52.Suppl1 (2010): S178.