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Sleeping during the day might lead e.g. to vitamin D deficiency. But I am interested in what effects might night-sleep-deprivation have on cognitive faculties.

Does sleeping during the day and absolutely not getting night sleep have an effect on working memory, long-term memory, intelligence level, processing speed, etc.?

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According to this article, yes it does have various symptoms including cognitive deficiencies that make us more prone to errors and less efficient :

Circadian rhythms biologically program us to stay awake during daylight hours and sleep at night. Shift work goes directly against what our bodies desire to do, and those that struggle with this may suffer from shift work sleep disorder (SWSD).

... symptoms may include headaches, weight gain, gastrointestinal issues, fatigue, attention and concentration issues, work absenteeism, irritability and depression. ... Worst of all, shift workers are at a significantly greater risk for vehicular accidents and mistakes at work.

The ideal situation is to maintain a steady sleep-wake schedule seven days a week, allowing for 7-8 hours of sleep. Although difficult to follow, it can be extremely helpful to help reset circadian rhythms. It can be especially tough on days off, when desires to socialize in the daytime and maintain more “normal” sleep periods kick in.

Additonal reference

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  • $\begingroup$ I wouldn't consider "psychology today" to be a reliable source. $\endgroup$ – Cauchy Aug 3 '17 at 9:58
  • $\begingroup$ @Cauchy I have added additional reference $\endgroup$ – DesignerAnalyst Aug 3 '17 at 10:03

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