I seem to have found the primary source of this piece of misinformation. I did a deep dive into this about a year ago when I saw these charts and instantly noticed none of them come from the source paper in any way.
I traced back reference upon reference until I finally found a chart with a watermark to this url: artandtechnology.com.au
Searching around the site, I found this image sitting there:
Using the Wayback Machine I found this post is dated October 15, 2011. Notice how the picture states Nobel Prize Psychology 2000 and on the post he states:
This team won the Nobel Prize for Psychology in 2000 for proving that the unskilled in a field do not know what they don't know.
Which is a fact I also see repeated on a lot of similar charts, despite being completely untrue.
Setting a Google image search to only show posts before that date, I find only one other similar chart from a blog post. The blog post, found here, posts a comic from the webcomic Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal stating that it seems like a good representation of the Dunning-Kruger Effect. This blog post is from April 13, 2011. The SMBC comic is as follows:
This comic was posted March 8, 2011 and makes no mention of the Dunning-Kruger Effect. The only thing linking this comic to the Dunning-Kruger Effect is the aforementioned blog post.
My assumption is that the the cartoonist who made the cited Dunning-Kruger chart did a Google search for the term after hearing about it, saw the image result for blog post containing the SMBC comic, and copied it with only cursory knowledge. From there it was used by a few articles and it just spread from there.
These are all the earliest found mentions of anything with the Dunning-Kruger effect and a chart of this shape. All other versions of this seem to come after 2011. I found an article citing the artandtechnology.com.au chart in 2012, and then someone made a similar chart in 2013. Most charts look very similar to the artandtechnology.com.au one or are just slightly modified version to hide the source.