Throughout the day, people's wakefulness and attentiveness varies, as modulated by one's circadian biorhythm. Whereas in the morning people are less awake, just before noon and around 15:00 people appear to experience peak performance.

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As nicely discussed in an older question, taking caffeine also seems to generally improve cognitive performance and alertness (Does caffeine improve performance for habituated consumers?).

I was wondering if these two factors may interact. For example, if you are in a "dip" in the circadian cycle, will coffee be most effective on attentiveness (because there is more room for improvement so to say)? Or will coffee be more effective when your are at a peak in the cycle, where the caffeine and the cycle amplify each other's effect?

Is there any scientific literature that investigated the interaction between caffeine intake and the circadian cycle?


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