What are the works/papers/results/theories any expert in cognitive science should know, even if they're outside his/her specific field of expertise?

One paper/theory per answer please, and state why do you find this work important to know (and ideally, not just because it has lots of citations, or because everyone teach it at Cognitive Science 101)

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    $\begingroup$ We haven't established guidelines on poll-type questions yet, but either way I feel you should at least limit the scope of the question considerably. Cognitive Science is too broad of a field in my opinion for this topic to be constructive in any way. $\endgroup$
    – Steven Jeuris
    Jan 25, 2012 at 10:04
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    $\begingroup$ I really believe this should be set as CW (there's no definitive answer, or many replies might be seen as equally valid and knowledgeable), and it would be good if respondents could highlight things like field of study, why they think this is an important paper, are there rejoinders or critical issues, etc., IMO. $\endgroup$
    – chl
    Jan 25, 2012 at 12:42
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    $\begingroup$ Not constructive? Seriously? The answer to this question alone could be worth its own site! $\endgroup$
    – Ofri Raviv
    Jan 25, 2012 at 16:33
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    $\begingroup$ @OfriRaviv: Feel free to participate in the meta discussion I linked to in my comment. $\endgroup$
    – Steven Jeuris
    Jan 25, 2012 at 16:37
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    $\begingroup$ The answer to this question alone could be worth its own site! Which is exactly why it's not a constructive question. If it needs an entire site to be answered properly, it's too broad. $\endgroup$
    – Josh
    Jan 25, 2012 at 16:54