As I said in the comments you're unlikely to find many, if any, papers on enhancing self-control. The two most prominent researchers, Walter Mischel and Roy Baumeister, focus on whether self-control can be learned and self-control as a resource, respectively.
Some articles, like this one from the APA or this blog post based on work from Kelly Mcgonigal, will mention ways with which to help your self-control "cheat" temptation through little hints, life hacks, or roundabout ways like physical health and self-esteem.
Those articles also makes mention of the resource or "muscle" model of self-control. Which states that the more self-control you use the more fatigued it will become. And, like a muscle, the more you use it the stronger it will be. The resource model has gone back and forth on being debunked, mainly around the need for glucose to "refuel".
But, that doesn't really get to the heart of your question. Mainly because boosting self-control, building healthy habits, and increasing willpower and diligence will come down largely to the individual and the task at hand. Something that makes generic research almost impossible.
What I'd suggest you do, if your goal is physical fitness, is to look up how to make a habit out of things like; going to the gym, eating healthier, or just being more active.