Are there (psychology) studies you've come across that are about how students perform after looking up certain answers--not all answers--for homework that is not graded? (I do not mean students who lack motivation.)

This may be too specific of a question so if you've come across related research it would be appreciated. Really, anything related to using a solution manual or solution websites will work.

I also welcome any efforts to improve this question.

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    $\begingroup$ I would suggest to also add the tags motivation, educational-psychology and problem-solving. Also, I can imagine that searching (e.g. on google scholar) for things like "task aspects that affect motivation" or "factors for motivation to study" might be fruitful. $\endgroup$
    – awakenting
    Aug 12, 2016 at 9:53
  • $\begingroup$ "Are there any studies..." is rather too broad than too specific - specific questions are preferred. If this question can be narrowed down to something like "how much time do students spend on non-credit vs graded tasks?" or "how well do students retain what they learn from credited vs self-guided tasks?" or something like that, then it can be reopened. $\endgroup$
    – Arnon Weinberg
    Dec 29, 2021 at 5:41
  • $\begingroup$ It's not too broad. Narrowing the question down further prevents someone from answering. $\endgroup$
    – adamaero
    Dec 29, 2021 at 14:02