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Current Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are capable of doing variational inference and learning representations and factors to explain the inputs, the outside world.

When the network gets bigger and more complicated, nothing will stop it from trying to explain, learn and predict its own inner states.

I think consciousness can be generated from this close loop process.

I remember that Hofstadter's Godel Escher Bach describes similar idea, I am just exicted about thinking it through. I want to know if there are references of similar or opposite ideas. I guess I am a strange loop is another book about this, but I haven't start reading it.

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David Chalmers has argued against the thermostat view, suggesting that adaptation to the environment is not sufficient. John Searle also disagrees that the current state of machine learning is capable of consciousness on the grounds that information processing is not a sufficient criterion (public lecture, 2016). Both of these philosophers emphasize clarity in their presentation of arguments and I highly recommend reading some of their books for a general introduction to current problems in consciousness and perception.

Complexity

In 1998, Tononi and Edelman published a science paper on Consciousness and Complexity. One of the main proponents, from the same lineage of researchers, links the complexity criterion to consciousness: Anil Seth and colleagues have suggested that a measure of complexity is central to explaining consciousness (pdf). His works are probably a good starting point if you are interested in a possible link between (abstract formulations that are relevant to both) artificial intelligence and consciousness.

Recurrent Processing

Although "recursive complexity" is a concept in Anil Seth's work, if you are particularly interested in the role of recurrent processing for consciousness, Victor Lamme's work on vision could be a starting point: Lamme & Roelfsma (2000)

Et cetera

For various views and perspectives, visit the most complete collection of references on consciousness online: http://consc.net/online/

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