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Lulu Xie et al write in their paper Sleep Drives Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain:

Using real-time assessments of tetramethylammonium diffusion and two-photon imaging in live mice, we show that natural sleep or anesthesia are associated with a 60% increase in the interstitial space

Do we have technology to do the similar measurements in humans and not only in mice? Have those measurements been done?

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Technically, it seems possible to perform the procedure before and after sleep. I am not sure if this has been done though. To what extent this is an invasive procedure I do not know, but it appears to involve surgery.

Both methods pose ethical challenges and it appears that these methods are relevant in clinical settings, where the cost-to-benefit analysis would suggest a benefit to the patient.

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