What are the mechanisms by which ketamine reduces the symptoms of depression and anxiety?

  • $\begingroup$ Does ketamine do that? If yes, could you add sources to that claim? I've never heard of NMDA antagonists having antidepressant properties. Of course, if you give it in anesthetic dosages it will knock you out - no depression, but no consciousness either - and that's probably not what you are after here. $\endgroup$ – AliceD Jun 24 '16 at 13:08
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    $\begingroup$ E.g. clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00088699. It would be nice if the OP could give some background info in his question. $\endgroup$ – huh Jun 24 '16 at 14:12
  • $\begingroup$ @huh now that's interesting! $\endgroup$ – AliceD Jun 24 '16 at 14:16
  • $\begingroup$ "the metabolism of (R,S)-ketamine to (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) is essential for its antidepressant effects, and that the (2R,6R)-HNK enantiomer exerts behavioural, electroencephalographic, electrophysiological and cellular antidepressant-related actions in mice. These antidepressant actions are independent of NMDAR inhibition but involve early and sustained activation of AMPARs (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors)." (Zanos et al., 2016) $\endgroup$ – mrt Jun 24 '16 at 19:17
  • $\begingroup$ This might be related? slatestarcodex.com/2016/06/07/ketamine-research-in-a-new-light $\endgroup$ – Seanny123 Jun 25 '16 at 3:42

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