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As far as I know, Physical Experimentation of Human Brain is not possible. So how does people come up with the idea that different parts of brain is associated with different specific functions? and Who found it?

Example:

  • Cerebrum for memory, speech etc..
  • Cerebellum for motor, sensory etc..
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Often, we learn about brain functions when parts of the brain become damaged. One famous example is that of Phineas Gage. He survived severe brain damage, and his character and abilities were noticeably different. From the article:-

Some months after the accident, probably in about the middle of 1849, Phineas felt strong enough to resume work. But because his personality had changed so much, the contractors who had employed him would not give him his place again. Before the accident he had been their most capable and efficient foreman, one with a well-balanced mind, and who was looked on as a shrewd smart business man. He was now, Harlow said, fitful, irreverent, and grossly profane, showing little deference for his fellows. He was also impatient and obstinate, yet capricious and vacillating, unable to settle on any of the plans he devised for future action. His friends said he was "No longer Gage."

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In addition to studies of patient with particular focal lesions, brain function in particular areas can also be studies in other ways. For one, functions are often conserved between species so that studying animals can give some indication of the role of a brain region in humans. This may be done by applying lesions or through treatment with genetic or pharmacological agents.

Brain function can also be studied in healthy humans through invasive or non-invasive methods. Sometimes electrodes are implanted in preparation for neurosurgery and these recordings can be used to learn something about brain activity associated with different tasks that the patient is asked to perform.

Non-invasive methods allow for the imaging or manipulation of brain function. Methods like functional magnetic resonance imaging or magneto-encephalography make it possible to record aspects of brain activity. In the analysis, statistical procedures are applied that identify the areas that are most closely associated with a particular tasks, which leads to the association of brain area and function.

In contrast, trans-cranial magnetic stimulation can be used to manipulate brain function for a short time. When this disruption leads to an impairment on s particular task, the brain area that was targeted is thought to be involved in that task.

However, the current view is moving away from describing simple association between an area and a behavioural or cognitive function. The old approach has sometimes dismissively been termed "modern phrenology". In more recent years, the focus has shifted towards describing the role of a brain structure within a wider network.

You will find many more details about this in any introductory cognitive neuroscience textbook, if you are interested.

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