Suppose I have a box, inside of which is a light which can be either on or off: it has exactly two states.
Suppose I wanted to take some "snapshot" of the state of this device, and store all the information about it, so that if I at some point had another device with sufficiently identical hardware + environment and a way of writing all the state to that device, I could recreate the state of that box. There are n=two possible states (so it would require log2(n) = 1 bits to store the state).
Now suppose my box is a brain. To the nearest order of magnitude, how many possible states does the brain have?
Assuming it's an adult human brain might make for the most useful answer to this question, but if you have more solid answers for brains of other animals while we wait on an answer for humans, feel free to post an answer stating that assumption.