Recently, this paper [1] claiming to be able to distinguish bipolar disorder from major depressive disorder via a urine sample has come to my attention.

Despite reading the paper, I'm unable to understand how they discovered this bio-marker in the first place. What is the general procedure for identifying and verifying bio-markers in the domain of clinical psychology?

[1] "Divergent Urinary Metabolic Phenotypes between Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder Identified by a Combined GC–MS and NMR Spectroscopic Metabonomic Approach" by Chen et. al

  • $\begingroup$ Is this question about the laboratory techniques (like GC-MS and NMR) or about the statistical processing of the measured data? Or were exactly is unclear after reading the paper? $\endgroup$ – Arsak Feb 24 '18 at 9:02
  • $\begingroup$ A reference to a quick overview lab techniques and statistical processing would be ideal. $\endgroup$ – Seanny123 Feb 25 '18 at 3:12

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