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Suppose someone has been using avoidance coping style for most of his or her life. The avoidance tendency is present in a broad range of situations, relatively constant through his or her life, not preceded by a major event or trauma, and not associated with any cognition or emotion.

According to current models, what are the likely causes of the coping style?
How changeable is the coping style through various therapies?

P.S. For the purpose of this question, I only ask about the coping style itself (that is, his or her tendency to avoid as opposed to counterattack or surrender) not the consequences of the coping style (the disorders and pathologies and so on).

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  • $\begingroup$ Welcome to Cogsci.SE! This is a good, but really broad question. I would encourage you to break it up into as many separate questions as you feel is needed. $\endgroup$ – Seanny123 Jul 23 '15 at 16:13
  • $\begingroup$ Hi there, I have edited the question to clarify and simplify it. I have removed two parts of the question that I deem unneeded. $\endgroup$ – bashful Jul 24 '15 at 0:01
  • $\begingroup$ Perfect! Thanks for putting in the effort to modify your question! $\endgroup$ – Seanny123 Jul 24 '15 at 0:43
  • $\begingroup$ Genes: "Three of 19 more specific coping styles showed shared environmental effects as well as genetic influences, 14 were solely under genetic influences, and two showed only shared environment effects." ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10443755 $\endgroup$ – user3116 Jul 26 '15 at 11:28