There are a number of spiritual practices that practice self-awareness and continuous awareness of one's thoughts and actions (for example the teachings of Ekhart Tolle):
Tolle writes that "the most significant thing that can happen to a human being [is] the separation process of thinking and awareness" and that awareness is "the space in which thoughts exist".
There are also a number of techniques employed by people who practice lucid dreaming - namely reality checks and being aware of one's thoughts and surroundings. Lucid dreamers expect that this kind of awareness would carry over into the dream experience and help achieve lucid dreaming.
Both have a common goal - to create some kind of a meta-awareness, or a watchdog awareness, similar to a background process on a computer. A watchdog task on a computer can wake the computer up if some other process has hanged, or some other task is taking up too much resources.
My question is - Does modern science (2015) have evidence to support that human brain is capable of running the "background process" kind of meta awareness of one's thoughts and actions for extended period of time"?
My question about ordinary daily activities - can this kind of background awareness process be running all the time, regardless of activity performed?